科学家采用开放阅读框(Open Reading Frame,ORF)文库的方式在BRAF突变的黑色素瘤细胞中逐个的激活一万五千个基因。该系统性研究方法揭示了黑色素瘤产生药物抗性的基因图谱。








A melanocyte lineage program confers resistance to MAP kinase pathway inhibition
Cory M. Johannessen,     Laura A. Johnson, Federica Piccioni,   Aisha Townes,        Dennie T. Frederick,       Melanie K. Donahue,         Rajiv Narayan,        Keith T. Flaherty,    Jennifer A. Wargo,         David E. Root          & Levi A. Garraway
Malignant melanomas harbouring point mutations (Val600Glu) in the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRAF (BRAF(V600E)) depend on RAF–MEK–ERK signalling for tumour cell growth1. RAF and MEK inhibitors show remarkable clinical efficacy in BRAF(V600E) melanoma23; however, resistance to these agents remains a formidable challenge24. Global characterization of resistance mechanisms may inform the development of more effective therapeutic combinations. Here we carried out systematic gain-of-function resistance studies by expressing more than 15,500 genes individually in a BRAF(V600E) melanoma cell line treated with RAF, MEK, ERK or combined RAF–MEK inhibitors. These studies revealed a cyclic-AMP-dependent melanocytic signalling network not previously associated with drug resistance, including G-protein-coupled receptors, adenyl cyclase, protein kinase A and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Preliminary analysis of biopsies from BRAF(V600E) melanoma patients revealed that phosphorylated (active) CREB was suppressed by RAF–MEK inhibition but restored in relapsing tumours. Expression of transcription factors activated downstream of MAP kinase and cAMP pathways also conferred resistance, including c-FOSNR4A1NR4A2 and MITF. Combined treatment with MAPK-pathway and histone-deacetylase inhibitors suppressed MITF expression and cAMP-mediated resistance. Collectively, these data suggest that oncogenic dysregulation of a melanocyte lineage dependency can cause resistance to RAF–MEK–ERK inhibition, which may be overcome by combining signalling- and chromatin-directed therapeutics.